Professor Angus Macfarlane - College of Education, Health and Human Development - University of Canterbury - New Zealand

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Angus Hikairo Macfarlane

Professor Angus MacfarlanePosition

Professor of Māori Research

Qualifications

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Education, The University of Waikato
Master of Social Sciences (MSocSc) with First Class Honours in Psychology 
Bachelor of Arts (BA)
Diploma in Teaching (Dip T)
Diploma in Education

Room

Wheki 470

Contact Details

Phone: +64 3 369 3833 ext: 93833
Email: angus.macfarlane@canterbury.ac.nz

Background

Dr Angus Hikairo Macfarlane affiliates to the Te Arawa confederation of tribes in the central north island. He is Professor of Māori Research at the University of Canterbury (UC), New Zealand. His research and publishing focuses on exploring Indigenous and sociocultural imperatives that influence education and psychology. Avid about Māori and Indigenous advancement in education and psychology, he has pioneered several theoretical frameworks associated with culturally responsive and restorative approaches for professionals who are working in these disciplines. Dr Macfarlane’s prolific publication portfolio and exemplary teaching abilities have earned him national and international standing in his field of scholarship. As a consequence he has been the recipient of a number of prestigious awards that acknowledge his accomplishments. In 2010 he was presented with the Tohu Pae Tawhiti Award from the New Zealand Council for Educational Research in recognition of his outstanding contribution to Māori research over an extensive period of time. In 2013 he was awarded the University of Canterbury Research Medal – the first ever Māori recipient and the highest honour that the University Council can extend to its academic staff – acknowledging sustained research excellence. In 2015 he received the national Ako Aotearoa Tertiary Teaching Excellence Award for specialist services in the field of kaupapa Māori.  His most recent distinction was the Research Team Award conferred by UC’s College of Education, Health and Human Development. He is a lead researcher for several ministerial-funded projects. Dr Macfarlane is a member of the Māori Education Reference Group for the Office of the Auditor General and is the Kaihautū (Senior Māori Advisor) of the New Zealand Psychological Society, a national entity that has a membership of over 1000 professional practitioners.

Scope

At a local level Professor Macfarlane is Director of Te Rū Rangahau; the Māori Research Laboratory located on the Dovedale campus and is the Māori delegate on the University of Canterbury Research Committee.  At a national level he is Kaihautū (Senior Māori Advisor) for the New Zealand Psychological Society and he holds advisory posts for the Office of the Auditor General, the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Social Development. Internationally he leads partnerships between UC and the Indigenous faculties at Macquarie University in Sydney Australia and the University of Waterloo in Ontario Canada. He is also a member of EIHE (Ethical Internationalism in Higher Education). EIHE is an inter-disciplinary international mixed-methods research project, which has received funding from the Academy of Finland from 2012 to 2015. The project examines internationalization processes in higher education and how these processes construct notions of epistemic difference, transnational literacy and global citizenship.

Courses

  • EDEM685 - Culturally Inclusive Pedagogies: Motivating Diverse Learners
    This course is designed to provide current and advanced theoretical understandings of motivation and behaviour for diverse learners. It is designed for postgraduate students who wish to engage in promoting analyses and rigorous critique of psych-socio practices in a variety of contexts. Issues relating to Maori and indigenous ways of knowing and practising will be explored, discussed, and reported on. A chief aim of the course is to select a range of concepts that vary together, and to shape them into resources that will have application for classroom practitioners, school leaders, resource teachers, special education advisors, psychologists, and other professionals interested in providing inclusive and vibrant learning environments in the milieu that make up today’s educational communities. 

Awards

  • 2013 University of Canterbury Research Medal: An award presented by the University Council for a sustained record of Research of the highest national and international quality
  • 2011 Good Practice Publication Grant: An award to acknowledge high quality teaching and learning practice by Ako Aotearoa, National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence, Wellington
  • 2010 Te Tohu Pae Tawhiti Award: A citation and waka huia presented by the New Zealand Association for Research in Education (NZARE): A national award for significant contribution, over time, to Māori research. Presented at the Annual Conference Auckland
  • 2010 Research Team Award: An award for outstanding research carried out by a team in the College of Education, Health and Human Development, The University of Canterbury
  • 2008 Senior Research Fellow: An inaugural award granted by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington
  • 2006 Nominee by University of Waikato for Tertiary Education Commission National Teaching Excellence Award
  • 2004 Citation for Māori Educational Achievement, He Tohu Kairangi - Annual National Māori Academic Awards, Hamilton
  • 2003 Senior Research Fellow, an inaugural award granted by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington
  • 1995 Honorary Membership to the Polynesian Society Incorporated: A certificate in recognition of achievement for study on a special topic on Religions of Aotearoa and the Pacific

Professional Delegations

International

  • Coordinator: New Zealand and Australian Alliance for Indigenous Research, University of Canterbury and Macquarie University, Sydney, 2011 – 2014.
  • Delegate: Critical Approaches to Global Citizenship Project, Oulu University, Finland.
  • Delegate: Pacific Circle Consortium - An International Cooperation between Educational Research Institutions in the Pacific and Oceania, 2009 – 2014
  • Delegate: Waterloo University Canada and University of Canterbury: A Partnership for Indigenous Development, 2014 – 2016
  • Editorial Board: Other Education -The Journal of Educational Alternatives, University of Stirling, Scotland, 2012 – 2014.
  • Member: ALARA Action Learning Action Research Association Inc., Toowong, Queensland, Australia, 2009 – 2014
  • Member: Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Community, University of Illinois, USA
  • Member: Restorative Practices International – A multi-national organisation for practitioners and theoreticians, 2011-2014

National

  • Academic Advisor: Advisor to Ministry delegate for Refreshing Ministry Māori Strategy – Ka Hikitia: Accelerating Māori Success, 2013-2017
  • Advisor: Group Assessment Resources for Classroom Teachers and Students (ARCTS) to the New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) under contract to the Ministry of Education, Wellington, 2011 - 2014
  • Advisor: Group formed to offer advice to the Ministry of Education for Gifted and Talented Policy, Wellington, 2011 – 2012
  • Advisor: He Kākano, A national professional development programme for secondary school leaders. Advisory Group to the Evaluation Team, Victoria University of Wellington, 2010-2014
  • Advisor: Māori Steering Group for Assessment Resource Banks, New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington, 2011 – 2013
  • Advisor: National Monitoring Study of Student Achievement, University of Otago, 2011-2014
  • Advisor: New Zealand Council for Educational Research - Safe School Climate Project for Ministry of Education, Wellington, 2011-2012
  • Advisor - Specialist: Peer Review Panel for the Māori Knowledge and Development Panel for the 2012 PBRF Quality Evaluation, Tertiary Education Commission, Wellington, 2011-2013
  • Advisor: Reference Group appointed by the Auditor General on the five-year plan, Our future needs – is the public sector ready? Office of the Auditor General, Wellington, 2011-2015
  • Advisor: Te Kotahitanga, a national professional development programme for secondary schools. Advisory Group to the Evaluation Team, Victoria University of Wellington, 2011-2014
  • Assessment Panel Member: Environment and Society Sector, Science and Innovation Group: Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, 2014
  • Board of Directors: Te Pito Mata Nurture Groups New Zealand, Auckland, 2013 – 2015
  • Board of Trustees: Kingslea School, a composite, decile one school delivering education within Child, Youth and Family residences in Christchurch, Dunedin and Rotorua, 2014 - 2015
  • Cultural Advisor: Journal of Educational Practice, Kairāranga, Massey University, 2002 – 2015
  • Cultural Advisor: National Resource Teachers of Learning and Behaviour Contract, Ministry of Education, Māori and Bicultural Curriculum Coordinator, 1999 - 2007
  • Cultural Advisor: Special Education Partnership Ministry of Education, Massey University and the University of Canterbury, Māori and Pasifika Advisory Group, 2010 - 2013
  • Delegate: AKO Aotearoa National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence. University of Canterbury delegate to the AKO Southern Hub, Christchurch, 2010 – 2015
  • Executive Member: New Zealand Educational Psychology Forum Incorporation based at the University of Auckland, 2012 – 2014
  • Kaiārahi: Te Roopu Kaitiaki – Māori Advisory Group for Conduct Disorders, Ministry of Social Development, Wellington, 2010 – 2012
  • Kaihautū: Cultural Advisor on the Executive Committee for the New Zealand Psychological Society, Wellington
  • Member: GiftED-NZ, Professional Association for Gifted Education Foundation, 2009 – 2014
  • Member: National Māori Association of Social Scientists (MASS), Victoria University of Wellington, 2012 - 2016
  • Member: New Zealand Association of Research in Education (NZARE), Māori Caucus, 2009 - 2015
  • Member: Royal Society of New Zealand, Electoral College of Humanities
  • Pouārahi – Research Leader: Te Ara-ā-Ihenga - a research entity of the Ngāti Whakaue Education Faculty of Te Arawa, Rotorua, 2008- 2014
  • Specialist Advisor: Māori delegate on an Advisory Group for Conduct Disorders (AGCD), an inter-agency working group commissioned by the Ministry of Social Development with the Ministries of Education and Health, Wellington, 2009 -2012

Local (University of Canterbury)

  • Advisor: First New Zealand Tertiary Community Engagement Summit, Organising Committee
  • Advisor: Board to Assistant Vice-chancellor Māori, University of Canterbury
  • Advisor: Graham Nuthall Classroom Research Trust : Research Awards Committee
  • Co-convenor: Māori Research Advisory Group (MRAG), University of Canterbury
  • Convenor: New Zealand Institute of Language, Brain and Behaviour: University of Canterbury, Cultural Advisory Committee
  • Delegate: Māori delegate on the College of Education, Health and Human Development Research Committee
  • Delegate: Māori delegate on the University of Canterbury Research Committee
  • Director: Te Rū Rangahau – The Māori Research Laboratory, College of Education, Health and Human Development
  • Māori Delegate: Geospatial Collaborative Project: The University of Canterbury with the Australian CRCSI – Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information
  • Māori Delegate: UC CEISMIC Research Committee, the Centre for Risk, Resilience and Renewal, University of Canterbury
  • Member: New Zealand Special Education Association (NZSEA) Canterbury Branch, membership pending
  • Professorial Advisor: Māori Educational Research, School of Teacher Education, University of Canterbury

Research

Please see UC Research Profile for full list of publications.

Director of the Te Rū Rangahau: Maori Education Research Lab

Current Projects

Title: Better start to life: E Tipu e rea

Abstract: A project under the auspices of the nation-wide National Science Challenges (Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, 2014). Significant health, education and social disparities persist in New Zealand and, as in other societies, indigenous and minority populations are the most affected. In addressing these disparities and ensuring equitable outcomes for all New Zealanders an important first step is to provide “a better start” to life. “E Tipu e rea”, which translates as “Grow ye, o seed, and fulfil your potential”, was penned by Sir Apirana Ngata, a revered Māori leader (Member of Parliament 1905-1943). The importance of early childhood, in particular, is reinforced by the recent analysis of adult health outcomes from early intervention [1]. The challenge is to use science to improve the potential of young New Zealanders to have a healthy and successful life with a focus on altering trajectories early in life and at adolescence, to bring together already developed expertise in New Zealand, and to explore, understand and use the new digital world we live in to create better outcomes. The framework set for the Challenge requires developing a science plan around three broad themes: 1. Maternal health, pregnancy and early childhood; 2. Successful transition into adulthood; and 3. Education: Living in a Digital world.
Subject area and Discipline: Human development; Disciplines of health science and education
Funding: Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Gail Gillon, Angus Macfarlane, Niki Davis, James Graham
Status: 2014 - 2019

Title: Above the Clouds Ka rewa ake ki ngā kapua

Abstract: This project was carried out to procure a suite of readings that would assist educators in identifying Māori students of promise. The growing interest in interracial tension and conflict is tempered by the collection of readings that report on research that describes and analyses young people of talent.
Subject area and Discipline: Gifted education; discipline of sociology
Funding: Support in kind from University of Canterbury Education Plus
Māori relevance: High relevance as the topic has orientations to Māori success
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Juliet Martin and Jeanette Christensen
Status: Completed 2010

Title: Best Evidence Synthesis: Findings for whānau and iwi

Abstract: This project draws upon a Maori metaphor to describe the theoretical framework underpinning the methodology and findings of a research project completed by researchers from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010. It explains how and why the project required the research team to synthesise key information from four New Zealand Ministry of Education Best Evidence Synthesis (BES) reports as well as "kaupapa" Maori research associated with the Ministry's "Ka Hikitia" Maori Education Strategy. The key messages outlined in this research were designed by the research team to serve as a new tool to assist whanau (family) and iwi (tribe) to actively engage in the New Zealand schooling system and assert their rights in accordance with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840). Given the large number of Maori children attending Australian schools, the findings of this research may be of interest to Australian educationalists.
Subject area and Discipline: Culturally relevant assessment; discipline of education
Funding: Ministry of Education
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Macfarlane, A.H., Skerrett, M., Cooper, G., Manning, R.F., Andreotti, V. and Emery, T.
Status: Completed 2011

Title: Huakina Mai: Opening doorways for Māori learners

Abstract: A project under the auspices of the nation-wide Positive Behaviour for Learning (PB4L) initiative, Ministry of Education. (2012-2016). This project is in response to the developmental a nationwide initiative of a whole-school strengths-based behavioural intervention by Māori for Māori with the potential to transform educational success and opportunities.  The initial stage of the project involved  a round of data collection, conducted via a series of focus groups held with Māori experts, practitioners, families and students, to support a theoretical development of a kaupapa Māori approach to school-wide positive behaviour.  The evidence indicated that a systems framework needs to come from a Māori worldview, be inclusive of community and ensure Māori children are able to learn as Māori – enjoying positive cultural and identity development through schooling.
Subject area and Discipline: Behaviour and motivation; Discipline of psychology
Funding: Ministry of Education
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Macfarlane, S., Macfarlane, A., Savage, C., Fickel, L. & Te Hemi, H., Duckworth, F.
Status: 2012 - 2015

Title: Evaluation of the Family Group Conference

Abstract: Child, Youth and Family have partnered with Te Awatea Violence Research Centre (VRC) at the University of Canterbury to independently evaluate Family Group Conference (FGC) practices and outcomes.  The evaluation focused on care and protection FGCs as relatively recent evaluations have been conducted in the youth justice area.  There have been a number of small studies of care and protection FGCs in New Zealand however they have never been evaluated in this country to see how effective they are for children and young people.  New Zealand and international research showed a high level of support for FGCs, from both families and professionals, however there is a lack of information about their long-term effectiveness.  The findings in this study were conducted at Child, Youth and Family sites in early 2013.  We sought the views of a small sample of children, young people and their whānau/caregivers about their experiences of FGCs in order to provide a foundation for the next phases of evaluation which examined the long-term outcomes from a much larger sample of children and young people.  
This approach reflects a number of priority areas and initiatives from the Children’s Action Plan and Mā mātou mā tātou.  For example the evaluation focused on quality of practice; measuring outcomes for children and young people; seeking the views of children and young people and being child focused; working together with Māori; and examining connections with communities and other agencies who work with vulnerable children.  Alongside the independent evaluation of care and protection FGCs, the project outcomes assisted Child, Youth and Family with the development of their internal evaluation capacity.
Subject area and Discipline: Youth justice; Discipline of sociology
Funding: Families Commission
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Annabel Taylor; Sue Carswell; Angus Hikairo Macfarlane; Yvonne Crichton-Hill; 'Moana-o-Hinerangi’
Status: 2012 - 2015

Title: Kaupapa Māori Teams in the Ministry of Education

Abstract: The project involved a review of the relevant international and national literature on kaupapa Maori philosophy, focus group interviews, and document analyses. The literature probed information regarding the Treaty of Waitangi and biculturalism, culture and cultural competency, and whanaungatanga/engagement. The literature also provided evidence of the theoretical grounding, credibility and validity of these constructs for the evaluation design and methodology, data analysis, and resulting recommendations for repositioning and strengthening the Kaupapa Māori Teams approach to service delivery in the Ministry of Education. Interviews capturing experiences, insights, and reflections of key persons (managers and team members) responsible for the design, development, and implementation of the four Kaupapa Māori Teams were carried out. Focus group interviews undertaken with the Kaupapa Māori Team Service Managers; the non-Kaupapa Māori Team Service Managers; the kaitakawaenga; Kaupapa Māori Team staff; family / whānau; and Regional and District managers.  Individual interviews undertaken with a school leader; two separate whānau members. Documents cited included Kaupapa Māori Teams Draft Operational Plan (May 2011), Implementation Plan (2010), and Scoping Paper (Feb 2010).
Subject area and Discipline: kaupapa Māori ways of working; Discipline of socio-political theory
Funding: Ministry of Education
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Macfarlane, A., Savage C., Fickel, L., Macfarlane, S. & Tarena, E.
Status: Completed 2012

Title: Extending innovative leadership to enable e-learning for better student outcomes in primary schools.

Abstract: This Teaching and Learning Research Initiative (TLRI) project looks to develop knowledge and capability for innovative school leadership strategies that enable e-learning. The overall aim is to employ e-learning to support student achievement through stronger networks between schools, parents/whānau and the wider community. All five principals in this project have a strong desire to take advantage of Ultrafast Broadband in Schools (UFBiS) initiative and to share that nationwide. In order for the UFBiS investment to transform practice, there is a need for school leaders and policy makers to understand (a) more about what it is that successful school leaders do to implement school-wide changes with digital and mobile technologies, and (b) how leaders who are less technologically-confident can be supported to plan for and use UFBiS and the Network for Learning (N4L) for educational gains.
Subject area and Discipline: e-learning; Discipline of Information technology
Funding: TLRI
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Julie Mackey, Niki Davis, Angus Macfarlane
Status: 2012 -2015

Title: Learning journeys from early childhood into schools

Abstract: This project is working with two early childhood services and two schools to investigate ways of enhancing children’s learning journeys from early childhood education into school, and to explore the impact of transition practices over time.  The research is located in two different communities: one where there is an established ECE/ school partnership and one where the relationships will be developed through the project.
Subject area and Discipline: Early childhood; Discipline of education
Funding: TLRI
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Sally Peters and Vanessa Paki of University of Waikato, Keryn Davis of CORE Education, Angus Macfarlane (advisor)
Status: 2011 - 2015

Title: Kia Mau: Young offenders, restorative practices and systemic change

Abstract: Kia Mau is a formative participatory evaluation instrument based on culturally responsive principles designed to support and to enable organisations to assess small-scale restorative justice initiatives through feedback provided by practitioners, young people and their families/ communities. Kia Mau was not designed to assess or evaluate young people and their families, but to offer organisations an opportunity to reflect on the principles and effectiveness of their initiatives with a focus on culturally responsive principles. The conceptual framework of Kia Mau proposes three nested and inter-related approaches to restorative thinking and practice (RTP) organised around eight concepts that are interpreted differently within each approach, namely identity, diligence, relationships, creativity, wellbeing, humility, scholarship, and Māori values.
Subject area and Discipline: Organisation evaluation; Discipline of restorative justice
Funding: Ministry of Social Development
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Sonja Macfarlane, Vanessa Andreotti
Status: Completed 2013

Title: Christchurch Health and Development Study - Birth to 35 Years. HRC Ref 11/792.

Abstract: This project is an extension of the longitudinal study under the leadership of the University of Otago, with the cultural dimensions of the study coordinated by the University of Canterbury. (2011-2015). The Christchurch Health and Development Study is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in the Christchurch urban region during mid-1977. The cohort was obtained by contacting the mothers of all live-born children giving birth in all maternity units, both public and private, in the Christchurch urban region during a four-month period and enlisting their participation in the research. Of the 1,310 mothers giving birth at this period, 1,265 (98%) agreed to participate in the research. It is an acclaimed study of international renown.
Subject area and Discipline: Human development; Discipline of psychology
Funding: This research was funded by grants from the Health Research Council of New Zealand, the National Child Health Research Foundation, the Canterbury Medical Research Foundation and the New Zealand Lottery Grants Board.
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: David Fergusson, Angus Macfarlane, Te Maire Tau
Status: 2011 - 2015

Title: Ethical Internationalism in Higher Education in Times of Crises

Abstract: EIHE is an inter-disciplinary international mixed-methods research project, which has received funding from the Academy of Finland from 2012 to 2015. It examines internationalization processes in higher education and how these processes construct notions of epistemic difference, transnational literacy and global citizenship. Official policies and initiatives, as well as the perceptions of faculty, students, and managers engaged with internationalization processes will be reviewed and compared. The data includes both policy documents and qualitative and quantitative data collected through surveys, interviews and ethnographies in 20 university sites. Research partners in these institutions have agreed to address the same questions using the same methods of data collection to create a common dataset that can be used in comparisons. Shared questions at the heart of the study include: How is the role of the university, faculty and graduates perceived in terms of social accountability ideals? How is epistemic difference perceived in internationalization policies and initiatives at participating universities? What kinds of educational policies and processes have the potential to resist and disrupt dominant patterns of knowledge production that restrict possibilities for ethical relationalities and solidarities in local and global academic spaces?
Subject area and Discipline: Global education; Discipline is interdisciplinary social science
Funding: Academy of Finland, University of Oulu
Māori relevance: Moderate
Personnel: Vanessa Andreotti of University of British Columbia, Angus Macfarlane and wider delegations from 20 countries
Status: 2012 - 2015

Title: Māori students experiencing success

Abstract: This pilot project aimed to define, quantify and derive meaning from the experiences of successful Māori students in their final year of state schooling at one Rotorua secondary school. The major focus of this project was to investigate the influential factors that contribute to Māori students succeeding at school. The project aimed to ascertain the nature of any trends of teaching, learning; and home socialisation patterns that support or constrain success. The results of this pilot project in fact set the scene for a wider research project that incorporated all the secondary schools and a wharekura (Māori medium secondary schools) within the Ngāti Whakaue school zone.
Subject area and Discipline: Culturally inclusive pedagogy
Funding: Ngāti Whakaue Education Endowment Trust
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Hiria McRae (Victoria University), Melinda Webber (Auckland University) and Candy Cookson-Cox (Rotorua-based consultant)
Status: Completed 2012

Title: Ka Awatea: A tribally-based study of high-achieving Māori students

Abstract: The Ka Awatea research project recognises the altruistic history of Te Arawa educational provision, and acknowledges the foundation that was set down by tribal ancestors for the benefit of those who followed them. The references to the past have great importance to the study. This is made more real by identifying the qualities modelled by former Te Arawa icons which inform the education community today.  Like all tribes in Aotearoa, Te Arawa valued learning, and the desire for educational success in the younger generations was paramount to the growth and development of the land and the people – those of today and those not yet born. Notwithstanding the national statistics there are growing numbers of successful Māori students, and also calls for changes to school environments, communities and curricula that support Māori success and assure its continuance. This study is about making culture count. It draws from the ‘success’ attributes of eight tribal ancestors as the key indicators for determining the domains of success, and the relevance of these attributes in contemporary educational and societal systems. 
Subject area and Discipline: Discourses of educational success; Discipline is cultural psychology
Funding: Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Hiria McRae (Victoria University), Melinda Webber (Auckland University) and Candy Cookson-Cox (Rotorua-based consultant)
Status: Completed 2014

Title: Expanding excellence

Abstract: Drawing on the insights of the Ka Awatea project, Expanding Excellence will investigate the discourses that distinguish sociocultural ideologies and realities. Sociocultural theory must have a strong orientation to situational theory. Within a particular setting, iconographies and identities are localised by the members of that social world over time, and their trajectories arise from and contribute to motivation for learning. The project will describe how all levels of education occur in a nested environment and how for Māori these domains include the individual, the community and the policy-makers. Each is a complex phenomenon. A catalogue will be prepared to show five sections of sociocultural phenomena that both coexist and vary together in a patterned way. Section one will look at sociocultural theories of learning and motivation. Section two will look at the policy-makers who have determined the structures of schooling education over the decades and the influence they have today. Section three will look at the role of the community outside the school and the impact that they have on sowing the seeds of success in rangatahi. Section four will look at the issues of identity, language and culture and the impact that these constructs have on growing the seeds of success in rangatahi. Section five will be a synthesis of the sociocultural milieu encountered in earlier chapters, and offer a trajectory for the challenges and promises yet to be experienced by the even more diverse education discerners in the years ahead.
Subject area and Discipline: Socialisation and motivation; Discipline is social psychology
Funding: Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane and Melinda Webber
Status: 2013 - 2014